Sunday, May 24, 2020

The Schenck Ruling by Chief Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes

Charles Schenck was the general secretary of the Socialist Party in the United States. During World War I, he was arrested for creating and distributing pamphlets that urged men to assert your rights and resist being drafted to fight in the war. Schenck was charged with attempting to obstruct recruitment efforts and the draft. He was charged and convicted under the Espionage Act of 1917 that stated that people could not say, print, or publish anything against the government during times of war. He appealed to the Supreme Court, claiming the law violated his First Amendment right to free speech. Chief Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes The former Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States was Oliver Wendell Holmes Jr. He served between 1902 and 1932.  Holmes passed the bar in 1877 and started working in the field as a lawyer at a private practice.  He also contributed editorial work to the American Law Review for three years, where he subsequently lectured at Harvard and published a collection of his essays called The Common Law.  Holmes was known as the Great Dissenter at the U.S. Supreme Court due to his opposing arguments with his colleagues. Espionage Act of 1917, Section 3 Following is the pertinent section of the Espionage Act of 1917 that was used to prosecute Schenck: Whoever, when the United States is at war, shall willfully make or convey false reports of false statements with intent to interfere with the operation or success of the military..., shall willfully cause or attempt to cause insubordination, disloyalty, mutiny, refusal of duty..., or shall willfully obstruct the recruiting or enlistment service of the United States, shall be punished by a fine of not more than $10,000 or imprisonment for not more than twenty years, or both. Supreme Court Decision The Supreme Court led by Chief Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes ruled unanimously against Schenck. It argued that, even though he had the right to free speech under the First Amendment during peacetime, this right to free speech was curtailed during the war if they presented a clear and present danger to the United States. It is in this decision that Holmes made his famous statement about free speech: The most stringent protection of free speech would not protect a man in falsely shouting fire in a theater and causing a panic. Significance of Schenck v. the United States This had a huge significance at the time. It seriously lessened the strength of the First Amendment during times of war by removing its protections of the freedom of speech when that speech could incite a criminal action (like dodging the draft). The Clear and Present Danger rule lasted until 1969. In Brandenburg v. Ohio, this test was replaced with the Imminent Lawless Action test. Excerpt from Schencks Pamphlet: Assert Your Rights In exempting clergymen and members of the Society of Friends (popularly called Quakers) from active military service the examination boards have discriminated against you. In lending tacit or silent consent to the conscription law, in neglecting to assert your rights, you are (whether knowingly or not) helping to condone and support a most infamous and insidious conspiracy to abridge and destroy the sacred and cherished rights of a free people. You are a citizen: not a subject! You delegate your power to the officers of the law to be used for your good and welfare, not against you.

Wednesday, May 13, 2020

The Theresa Andrews Case

In September 2000, Jon and Teresa Andrews were busy getting ready to enter into parenthood. The young couple was childhood sweethearts and had been married for four years when they decided to begin building a family. Who would know that a chance meeting with another pregnant woman, while in the baby department of a store, would result in murder, kidnapping, and suicide? Summer of 2000 Michelle Bica, 39, shared the good news about her pregnancy with friends and family. She and her husband Thomas prepared their Ravenna, Ohio home for the arrival of their new baby girl by installing baby monitors, setting up a nursery, and buying baby supplies. The couple was jubilant about the pregnancy, especially after the miscarriage Michelle had suffered the year before.  Michelle donned maternity clothing, showed friends the baby sonogram, attended birthing classes, and other than her due date which kept getting pushed forward, her pregnancy appeared to be progressing normally. A Chance Meeting? During a shopping trip to the baby department at Wal-Mart, the Bicas met Jon and Teresa Andrews, who were also expecting their first child. The couples chatted about the cost of baby supplies and discovered that they lived just four streets away from each other. They also talked about due dates, genders, and other normal baby talk. Days following that meeting Michelle announced that there had been a mistake with her sonogram and that her baby was actually a boy. Teresa Andrews Disappears On Sept. 27, Jon Andrews received a call at work from Teresa at around 9 a.m. She was trying to sell her jeep and a woman had called saying she was interested in buying it.  Jon cautioned her to be careful and throughout the day tried to reach her to see how she was and if she sold the jeep, but his calls went unanswered. When he returned home he discovered both Teresa and the jeep were gone although she had left behind her purse and cell phone. He knew then that something was wrong and feared that his wife was in danger. Four Streets Over On the same day, Thomas Bica also received a call at his job from his wife. It was great news. Michelle, in a series of dramatic events, had given birth to their new baby boy. She explained that her water broke and she was taken to a hospital in an ambulance, had given birth, but was sent home with the newborn because of a tuberculosis scare at the hospital. Family and friends were told the good news and over the next week people came by to see the Bicas new baby which they named Michael Thomas. Friends described Thomas as a classic new dad who was ecstatic about their new baby. Michelle, however, seemed distant and depressed. She talked about the news of the missing woman and said she was not going to display the new baby flag in the yard out of respect for the Andrewses. The Investigation The following week, investigators tried to piece together clues into Teresas disappearance. A break in the case came when they identified the woman through phone records who called Theresa about the car. The woman was Michelle Bica. During the first interview with detectives, Michelle appeared evasive and nervous when she told them about her activities on Sept. 27. When the FBI checked out her story they found that she had never been to the hospital and there was not a tuberculosis scare. Her story appeared to be a lie. On October 2, detectives returned to do a second interview with Michelle, but as they pulled into the driveway, she locked herself in a bedroom, put a gun into her mouth, and shot and killed herself. Thomas was found outside the locked bedroom door in tears. The body of Teresa Andrews was found in a shallow grave covered in gravel inside the Bicas garage. She had been shot in the back and her abdomen had been cut opened and her baby removed. Authorities took the newborn baby from the Bica home to the hospital. After several days of testing,  DNA results proved that the baby belonged to Jon Andrews. The Aftermath Thomas Bica told police he believed everything Michelle had told him about her pregnancy and the birth of their son. He was given 12 hours of polygraph examinations which he passed. This along with the results of the investigation convinced the authorities that Thomas was not involved in the crime. Oscar Gavin Andrews Jon Andrews was left to mourn the loss of his childhood sweetheart, wife, and mother of his child. He found some solace in the fact that the baby, renamed as Teresa had always wanted, Oscar Gavin Andrews, had miraculously survived the brutal attack.

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Advancement Opportunities of Professional Nursing Free Essays

At a time of the global economic recession, the healthcare professions, including nursing are experiencing an unprecedented upsurge in enrollment. The competition for the most lucrative of nursing positions are on the horizon, not only from US-trained professionals, but from foreign-educated nurses as well – the foreign nursing experts from the Philippines, India, Pakistan, among others. There are two tracks which a professional nurse may pursue in relation with his work – the clinical and management tracks. We will write a custom essay sample on Advancement Opportunities of Professional Nursing or any similar topic only for you Order Now The former is involved in pain management, beside care and assisting the physicians in surgical operations. The latter is involved in the day-to-day administration of hospitals and clinics, assisting management in the way these medical institutions are being run. The management track is involved in ensuring full efficiency in the deployment of nurses to the different departments of the hospital, and in providing contingency support in the event of a lack in human resources in a department. On the other hand, there are many ways by which nurses may advance themselves in their profession. At present, one of the more lucrative specializations in the nursing profession is being a nurse-anesthetist. He is involved in the general pain management of patients, under the direction and supervision of the physician-anesthesiologist. Being a nurse-anesthetist involves greater care and discretion in handling patients compared to regular non-specialized nurses, because it entails the administration of potentially-fatal anesthetic drugs. Meanwhile, nurses uninterested in greater pay can opt to involve themselves in international nursing work, as part of the staff of international medical organizations such as the Medicins Sans Frontieres (Doctors Without Borders), a most recognized international organization of doctors and nurses deployed in the most depressed areas of the world. Another field that may be pursued can be that of being a nurse-lecturer in a nursing school, especially now when there is great demand for highly-trained nurses to fill the positions of old nurses about to retire. For my part, I would pursue the clinical track of the nursing profession, because I believe that it would continue honing my bedside skills further and it would provides a sense of greater fulfillment in view of the fact that I shall continue being in constant interaction with patients whom I serve to the best of my abilities. References: Work in the Field. Doctors Without Borders. Retrieved from   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚ on April 8, 2009. American Association of Nurse Anesthetists. Education of Nurse Anesthetists in the United   Ã‚  Ã‚   States – At a Glance. 2005. Retrieved May 23, 2007, from How to cite Advancement Opportunities of Professional Nursing, Papers

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Scheduling Strategy

Question: Which Scheduling strategy would you recommend for this new operating system? Please provide reasons to support your recommendation? Answer: Consider first that I've been a day by day iPad client since the day the tablet propelled. I've never had much liking for MacOS and Apple desktops, yet I have actually utilized either the iPad, iPad 2 or new iPad consistently since April 3, 2010. Tablets work for me. Touch route meets expectations for me. What's more, the iPad has worked for mein spite of the way that its never helped me do any genuine work. Anyhow now there's a genuine distinct option for the iPad in my life. Throughout the previous couple of weeks, I've been playing with different Windows 8 tablets, including, yes, the new Surface RT, which I took for a twist on Microsoft's Redmond grounds recently. Windows 8 tablets are the genuine article, individuals, and their novel charms attach straightforwardly back to the new OS. Presently, don't imagine it any other way: Navigating the Windows 8 touch interface includes a precarious expectation to absorb information. The new touch motions aren't natural, and this alone cedes critical ground to iOS, which is so basic, ranch creatures could likely make sense of it. Anyway as with numerous vexing programming interfaces (think Photoshop or Excel), awesome force is frequently bolted inside apparently enigmatic UI. A Unix document is simply a huge pack of bytes, with no different qualities. Specifically, there is no ability to store data about the document sort or a pointer to a related application program outside the record's real information. All the more by and large, everything is a byte stream; even equipment gadgets are byte streams. This illustration was an enormous achievement of right on time Unix, and a genuine propel over a world in which (for instance) aggregated projects couldn't create yield that could be bolstered back to the compiler. Pipes and shell programming sprang from this allegory. At the same time Unix's byte-stream representation is central to the point that Unix experiences difficulty coordinating programming articles with operations that don't fit perfectly into the byte stream or record collection of operations (make, open, read, compose, erase). This is particularly an issue for GUI protests, for example, symbols, windows, and "live" records. Inside an established Unix model of the world, the best way to expand the everything-is-a-byte-stream analogy is through ioctl calls, a famously appalling accumulation of secondary passages into bit space. Enthusiasts of the Macintosh group of working frameworks have a tendency to be vociferous about this. They advocate a model in which a solitary filename may have both information and asset 'forks', the information fork relating to the Unix byte stream and the asset fork being an accumulation of name/worth sets. Unix partisans lean toward methodologies that make document information delineating toward oneself so that adequately the same kind of metadata is put away inside the record. The issue with the Unix methodology is that each system that composes the document needs to think about it. Subsequently, for instance, on the off chance that we need the document to convey sort data inside it, each instrument that touches it needs to fare thee well to either safeguard the sort field unaltered or translate and afterward revise it. While this would be hypothetically conceivable to orchestrate, by and by it would be excessively delicate. Then again, supporting document qualities brings up clumsy issues about which record operations ought to safeguard them. It's unmistakable that a duplicate of a named record to another name ought to duplicate the source document's traits and additionally its information however assume we cat(1) the document, diverting the yield of cat(1) to another name? The response to this inquiry relies on upon whether the qualities are really properties of filenames or are in some enchanted route packaged with the record's information as a kind of undetectable introduction or postamble. At that point the inquiry gets to be: Which operations make the properties noticeable. In registering, multitasking is a system where various undertakings (otherwise called courses of action) are performed amid the same time of time they are executed simultaneously (in covering time periods, new assignments beginning before others have finished) rather than consecutively (one finishing before the following begins). The undertakings offer basic transforming assets, for example, focal preparing units (CPUs) and principle memory. Multitasking does not so much imply that various assignments are executing at precisely the same moment. As it were, multitasking does not suggest parallel execution, yet it does imply that more than one undertaking can be part-path through execution in the meantime, and that more than one assignment is propelling over a given time of time. References: Belay, A., Prekas, G., Klimovic, A., Grossman, S., Kozyrakis, C., Bugnion, E. (2014, October). IX: A protected dataplane operating system for high throughput and low latency. In11th USENIX Symposium on Operating Systems Design and Implementation (OSDI 14),(Broomfield, CO)(pp. 49-65) Andrews, C. A., Huber, G. D., Lo, Y. C., Swierk, T. (2015).U.S. Patent No. 20,150,082,012. Washington, DC: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office Hodson, O. T., Hunt, G. C., Nightingale, E. B. (2014).U.S. Patent No. 8,776,088. Washington, DC: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office

Wednesday, April 1, 2020

Jazz The Devils Music Essay Example

Jazz: The Devils Music Paper Jazz was developed in the 1920s as a mix of African-American traditions and white middle-class ideals. This genre of music was called â€Å"the devil’s music† for it often led to wild and energetic dancing, and the force of racism led to many stereotypes and cruel thoughts.Jazz was radical and wild.jazz was a new style of music that started in America with many foreign influences.Talented musicians like Jelly Roll Morton and Louis Armstrong helped jazz rise in popularity. This music is what shaped modern music into what it is today. Jazz music originated in New Orleans, Louisiana in the early 1900s.The sound of jazz mixed African rhythms with European harmonies.This allowed for the musicians to extend their own voice with the instrument, and also stay melodic at the same time (Jazz in America).New Orleans was the perfect crock pot for all of this to be created.The city had a port that encouraged different people to interact.Cultures began to mix and jazz was born. Initially, many people were against this new form of music.Doctor E. Elliot Rawling said in an interview with a magazine: â€Å"The form of music called jazz, is just as intoxicating as morphine or cocaine: it is just as harmful.† (Rawling)People looked at jazz as a dark and corrupt thing.The music captured a youthful rebellion in its sound.The music encouraged dancing that was considered sinful.This is how jazz music earned the nickname â€Å"the devil’s music†.It was against anything that was thought of as normal in the 1920s. We will write a custom essay sample on Jazz: The Devils Music specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Jazz: The Devils Music specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Jazz: The Devils Music specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer Jazz music was very influential.Jazz helped create many of the most popular genres of music today.These genres include: rock and roll, hip-hop, pop, and country.Jazz influenced many memorable musicians.The Beatles may not have had their signature sound without the proper influence; jazz.Paul Mccartney once stated that he â€Å"knew and loved old jazz† (AAJ Staff).Jazz influenced United States culture by reachi

Sunday, March 8, 2020

Representation of Women in Higher Education

Representation of Women in Higher Education Introduction The modern woman is no longer the person who was traditionally meant to be mainly involved in domestic activities exclusively. Today’s women have ventured into the professional world and are no longer regarded as people whose work is mainly the domestic chores.Advertising We will write a custom research paper sample on Representation of Women in Higher Education specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More To achieve this, women have developed careers and do all that is required to develop their careers. Moreover, many women have ventured into the world of academia and competed with the men for different positions. To this end, women can now be found in spheres, which were traditionally meant for men eg medicine and engineering. Women form a large number of students in the undergraduate colleges. They also form a large proportion of students found in tertiary and even postgraduate colleges. Therefore it would seem natural that since the women are the majority of the students enrolling in graduate and postgraduate degrees they should therefore be the one who form a sizeable proportion of the leadership in all the professional fields. In some fields women form the majority of the leaders in those fields. However, this is not true in the case of higher education. Moreover, despite forming a sizeable population of the members of different institutions of higher learning, few women are usually in position of leadership. Leadership positions of institutions of higher learning are usually divided into hierarchies whereby, in the lower hierarchies, women are very well represented. However, as one goes to the higher hierarchies, the representation of the women diminishes. These hierarchies are mainly represented by men. Women are also subjected to biase in their employment selection and consideration for promotion. However, even when women hold similar positions with the men the women are usually paid less salari es compare to their male compatriots who do the same kind of jobs as the women. Women are also subjected to limited chances to career and professional advancement (Dean, Bracken and Allen, 2008, p 2).Advertising Looking for research paper on education? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More However, despite the fact that women are still underrepresented in the leadership of higher education, there has a great improvement in the number of women on various positions of leadership. Their number continues to increase and it is expected that in the future their number will almost be equal to that of men in leadership positions (Alemn and Renn, 2002, p 3). Therefore, due to the above situations women need to come up with strategies to help increase their representation and enhance their chances of being elevated to leadership positions. They need to correctly position themselves to benefit from any available opportunities that ma y crop up. This will ensure that the women representation in higher education improves and the women can achieve their academic and professional goals (Dean, Bracken and Allen 2008, p2). The women in the black community are the ones who are most underrepresented in the higher education. They face double discrimination, the fact that they are black and being women. The black women are viewed by the white men as having little or no worth. These women usually immigrate to the countries in order to obtain the higher education. Therefore, the women find it hard to get assimilated to the society of academia and are usually faced with many barriers to their academic success. They must be culturally assimilated to the society before achieving any meaningful progress. Even for women who are native assimilation into the world of academia is difficult. Hence these women are faced with much more difficulties in attaining leadership opportunities in the higher education. (Jones, 2005, p 1) Purpo se of this study This paper attempts to show the different in the number of leadership positions of women who are higher levels of education. In so doing we will mainly be focused on the women’s point of view regarding the subject.Advertising We will write a custom research paper sample on Representation of Women in Higher Education specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More However leadership in institutions of higher learning is just one of the issues on gender equality which need to be addressed. This paper will not deal with the other issues as its main focus is on representation of women in higher education. However this paper does not deal with the other issues of gender equality The purpose of this study is to determine the factors that may be making the representation of women in higher education to be lower compared to that of men. This paper will also focus on the reasons for the under representation of women in mostly the pre stigious institutions of higher learning. By studying the reasons for the under representation this paper will attempt to come up with different strategies to ensure that the pattern is avoided. Background of the problem A brief background of the conditions in America will help understand the reasons for the current under representation. During the beginning of civilization, two factors were mainly considered to bring about change; democratic and political revolution and economic development. In all these changes women were not actively involved, men were the ones who were mostly involved (attached material p 5). Thus, women were generally considered mainly concerned with the performance activities in the domestic spheres of life, whereas the men were actively involved in the activities, which were of public interests (Alemn and Renn, 2002 p 5). In those days, the women who chose to follow their academic paths were perceived by the men to be awkward and going against the norms of so ciety, which required that they be relegated to the roles bestowed upon them, by the men. However, today’s women choose to pursue their career objectives. These women have enrolled in university programs to achieve their desired career objectives so as to effectively compete with the men. There are now more women who are enrolled in higher education than the men (Alemn, and Renn, 2002 p xx).Advertising Looking for research paper on education? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More However, despite the fact there are more women enrolling in university education, the number of women who are in the leadership positions in higher education is still comparatively low. The leadership positions have been mainly the domain of men. Theoretical framework There are many methods that can be used to gauge the increase of leadership of women in various positions. The political reforms, which allow the women to become the heads of states, are just one of the methods used to gauge the emergence of women leadership. However, this does not truly reflect the equality of men and women in distribution of leadership position in the spheres of society (Hartman, n.d). In recent times, there have been so many advocacies for equity of women in all the spheres of society. These initiatives are mostly led by women and seek to empower women economically, politically, academically and health wise. This initiatives help to create equity in all the sectors of society and enable women to rea ch their leadership potential more easily. However, even after the creation of equity women still do not occupy leadership in visible spheres of the society. This has made different people to point out that women do not have leadership qualities. This is mot true since have exercised their leadership abilities even before the beginning of civilization. The leadership of women was mostly concerned with the community and households leadership; hence her leadership was not seen since it was not a leadership position which is highlighted in the public domain. Leadership of women mainly concerned things which relate to domestic issues. However, modernization has reduced the tendency of women to be relegated to the domestic realms. Women are now having fewer children, marrying late, concentrating more on attaining quality education and moving out of the homes to seek paid jobs. This has made women to lead lifestyles which resemble those of men and hence seek leadership opportunities consi dered to belong to men. However, by so doing, the women have sacrificed their roles which were traditionally female such as the tender care which the women give to children and society. However women do not have to sacrifice all that at the expense of being leaders. They can still be leaders and maintain their roles which would be of great benefit not only to the society but also to themselves. Hence, gender equality should not just be viewed as the ability of women doing things, which were conventionally meant, for men, but their ability to influence the society in their specific way. Literature Review Women current form a majority of the undergraduates of colleges in America (57 %), and also form a large percentage of the doctorate degrees awarded in America. However despite these statistics men still continue to dominate the most desirable positions of leadership in the education system. As one move up the administration ladder, which demands for more responsibility, the number o f women in those positions decreases markedly (Gupton 2009 p 3). In these institutions, 58% of the instructors are women, 54% of the lecturers are women, 51% of the women are in the unranked areas and only 23% of the full professors are women. The data shows that there is a majority representation of women in the lower ranks of the institutions. It also clearly illustrates the misrepresentation of women in the higher positions of leadership in the institutions (Gupton, 2009, p 3). In the US, the bulk of the full professors, tenured faculty members and high level administrators in the institutions of higher learning are formed by men. However, more and more women are employed in these institutions but for positions, which have lower salaries (Gupton, 2009, p 3). However, the situation is far much worse for the leadership positions of institutions of higher learning. Only 16% of the university presidents are women. Women form 25 % of the chief academic officers of institutions of high er learning. This situation is also grave in the other professional fields. Among the chief business officers, only 13 % of them are women. This seems to be ironical since women form a large percentage of the population in both the undergraduate and post graduate schools of higher learning (Chliwniak, 1997 para 1). This is despite the fact that more women are likely to obtain a doctorate degree than men. However, this proportion is further worsened by the fact that either most of these women presidents are heads of two-year colleges, which are not as prestigious as four-year colleges, or they are the presidents of women colleges (Gupton, 2009, p 4) The men also occupy a large percentage of the district school superintendents (85%). The superintendents are usually promoted from the rank of principals of high schools. However, the number of women principles has recently equaled the number of men principles, therefore the expected to improve further. Even though this may seem a good ad vancement, it is negligible compared to the number of women who are involved in the profession of teaching. The teaching profession is made up of 72% women and is sometimes referred to as the profession of the female. This profession despite being largely populated by women it is still mainly dominated by men who are the majority of the district superintendents in the US. Comparison of the female and male forms of leadership The question of the comparison between the leadership of men and women usually attracts mixed reactions. There are people who see that the leadership abilities of women are usually measured using the male-gender standards which are somehow biased. However men and women generally lead in totally different ways. It has been shown that women leaders tend to be more power sharing than that of the men. In exercising their leadership, the women generally create relationships with the people who they are leading and other relevant people to succeed in their leadership. Women generally tend to be reconciliatory and ready to share power with the people who they are leading it the implications of these actions will lead to better results (Ramsay, 2000, p 3). However, this is not the case for men leaders who generally do not form relationships. The men usually impose leadership through the rewarding of exemplary work and punishing people who they perceive to have done wrong. However if has been showed that women leaders tend to be reconciliatory than the men leaders (Dean, Bracken and Allen 2008 p 11). When women are education administrators, their main emphasis is usually on the solution to the personal differences of the students, knowledge of curriculum teaching methods and the objectives of teaching (Growe, n.d, p 3). Barriers to women advancement in higher education leadership Women generally face different hurdles in their quest to obtain promotion to higher levels of leadership in institutions of higher learning. The women usually occupy large numbers of leadership positions the midlevel administrative positions and in lower levels of leadership. The midlevel administrative positions include the deans and directors of various faculties in institutions of higher learning. The lower levels are mainly librarians and dealing with student issues. The women in the lower levels f administration are usually considered for promotional faster than in the other levels. However when the women reach this level they start getting the promotions at a slower rate. Hence, they are said to experience a glass ceiling, which hinders their promotion to the higher levels of administration (Alemn and Renn, 2002, p 484). Recommendation To increase the number of women in management of institutions of higher learning, the government should not just offer lower qualifications for the women. The most important thing for governments to do is to increase the participation of women in leadership of institutions higher learning, is to take measures tha t will lead to an increase the quantity and quality of women in institutions of higher learning. The increase in the number of women who enroll in both the undergraduate and post graduate courses of institutions of higher learning will enable women to effectively compete with men for the available post which require educational qualifications. Increasing the quality of education offered to the women enables the women to obtain the necessary qualifications required to get leadership jobs in higher education institutions. This would greatly help in reducing the underrepresentation of women in institutions of higher learning as sometimes the institutions are willing to hire women but lack women with the necessary qualifications (Singh 2002 p 54). This can be achieved through the setting up of scholarship funds for women and improving the conditions of postgraduate studies to cater for the needs of women (Singh 2002 p 55). Already some universities have started implementing this and off er a variety of programs meant for women (Bethman, p 1) The institutions of higher learning should also come up with training programs and courses that target women to help improve their knowledge and leadership skills. These courses should focus on helping the women to improve their knowledge on a variety of issues on management which are applicable to higher education. They should also train women on developing plans which will enable them to effectively cope with their personal and professional lives which are both very demanding on the women (Singh 2002 58). These courses may just be short courses given to the female staff of various institutions or they may be integrated into degree programs to help the women. These courses help the women to effectively cope with management of higher educations institutions thus enabling them to effectively compete with the men. Summary and conclusion As outlined in the above paper women face a diverse of issues concerning their representation in institutions of higher learning. The men have dominated all the aspects of leadership in higher learning. Therefore the women need to be extra vigilant to ensure that they are effectively represented in all the education spheres. The women should not just expect favour from the government in order for them to get representation in these institutions. The women should arm themselves with the necessary knowledge which will lead to their elevation to leadership positions in institutions of higher learning. However, one important aspect, which one should note, is that the representation of women in all spheres of society is slowly increasing and in the future, it is expected that the number of women in various leadership positions will be equal to that of the men. Having more women in leadership positions will ensure that they are equally represented and the few do not lead the many as it continues to happen in the institutions of higher learning in the US. Due to the economic crisis facing the US, the problem of women being under represented is likely to be reduced as history has proven that drastic measures are usually taken during times that are considered hard. References Alemn, M., Renn, K.A. (2002). Women in higher education: an encyclopedia. CA: ABC-CLIO. Bethman, B. L. (N.d). College and university women leadership programs Accessed from Chliwniak, L. (1997). Higher Education Leadership: Analyzing the Gender Gap Washington DC ERIC Clearinghouse on Higher Education. Retrieved from Dean, D. R., Bracken, S.J. and Allen, J.K. (2008). Women in academic leadership: professional strategies, personal choices. Virginia Stylus Publishing, LLC. Retrieved from Growe, R. (N.d). Women and the leadership paradigm: bridging the gender gap. Retried from,%20Roslin%20Women%20and%20the%20Leadership%20Paradigm%20Bridging%20the%20Gender%20Gap.pdf. Gupton, S. L. (2009). Women leadership in the US: reflections of a 50 year veteran. Forum for public policy. Retrieved from Hartman, M. N.d. Women in power: A theoretical framework. (Attached material). Jones S.D. (2005). Leadership in higher education: influences on perception of black women. Retrieved from Rams ay, E. (2000). Women and leadership in higher education: facing international challenges and maximizing opportunities. Retrieved from Singh, J.K. S. (2002). Women and management in higher education a good practice handbook. United Nations educational scientific and cultural organization (UNESCO).

Thursday, February 20, 2020

Research Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2750 words

Research - Essay Example I am equally overwhelmed by the unflinching support of all my other professors, lecturers and administrative staff and the library staff at the _____________ University and thank them profusely. Their slightest disarrangement would have distracted my focus from the research. As early as 1960’s the object-oriented programming (OOP) emerged in the computer software arena, when â€Å"data abstraction, polymorphism and modularisation were being applied to the procedural paradigm† (Cardelli, 1996). By 1980’s, research predicted that what structured programming was in the 1970’s, object-oriented programming will be in the 1980’s (Booch, 1986). Object-oriented software development not only prevailed all through the 1980’s, but also through the next two decades. But in a globalised market, as the software market becomes more and more competitive with ever increasing pressure on shortening software development cycles and for improved software productivity, an important dilemma has engulfed the software developers across the world. Can the object-oriented programming stand the test of the time? The present section deals with the issues pertaining to using software methodologies and the implications for object-oriented sof tware projects. Booch (1986) defined object-oriented development as â€Å"a partial-lifecycle software development method in which decomposition of a system is based upon the concept of an object† (Booch, 1986, p.211). Booch in his paper â€Å"Object-Oriented Development† argued that the object-oriented technology is fundamentally different from the traditional functional approaches in respect of designing, serving and managing massive software-intensive systems as well (Booch, 1986). Nearly one and a half decade later, Montlick (1999) supports Booch’s argument and suggests that â€Å"object oriented software is all about objects† (Montlick, 1999). While defining an object as a